A joule of an energy-efficient car

first_img27 October 2010South Africa, which builds BMWs and Mercedes Benzes for the US market, is in the thick of the race to deliver a truly practical – and stylish – electric car. Meet the Joule. The battery-operated six-seater was designed by local boy Keith Helfet, an internationally distinguished vehicle designer who, before opening his own consultancy, was a key designer at Jaguar.He was brought on board by mechanical engineer Kobus Meiring, CEO of the Joule’s Cape Town-based manufacturer Optimal Energy. Something of a legend in engineering circles, Meiring helped develop South Africa’s Rooivalk attack helicopter, and later project managed the Southern African Large Telescope, which was completed on budget and on time.The Joule debuted at the Paris Motor Show in October 2008 and has since received a facelift at the Milan-based Zagato Total Design Centre. It will comply fully with global safety standards, and Optimal is aiming for a five-star rating from the Euro New Car Assessment Programme.The Joule’s prototype phase is now complete, and the necessary modifications made. But before the commercial version hits the streets, further refinements and feedback from consumers and the media will be incorporated into a test fleet, which will be hand-built, like the prototype, by Hi-Tech Automotive in Port Elizabeth, in the Eastern Cape province.The Joule is expected to go into full-scale production at the end of 2013, to appear on showroom floors in mid-2014. The car’s South African price will be somewhere between US$32 300 (R220 800) and $39 000 (R266 600) in today’s terms, and export is also on the cards.The car is made of eco-friendly materials with a local content of at least 50%. It will also feature a roof-mounted solar panel as an option.Optimal maintains that charging the Joule will not place an extra strain on South Africa’s sometimes-fragile national electricity grid. The plan is for Joules to plug in to charge at night, as local utility Eskom has extra capacity between 11pm and 6am.With its battery range of around 300km, regenerative brake system, fewer moving parts and zero engine emission, the Joule is set to change the way South Africans drive.This article was first published in South Africa Now, a six-page supplement to the Washington Post produced on behalf of Brand South Africa. Download South Africa Now (PDF, 2.12 MB).last_img read more

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Court puts cruelty against elephants at Amber Fort under scanner

A magistrate’s court in Amber, near here, has directed the police to investigate into cruelty against elephants used as a tourist attraction and for giving joy rides to the visitors to the historic Amber Fort. Nearly 103 elephants regularly carry tourists up and down a deep slope at the fort built by the erstwhile Kachwaha Rajput rulers.The court of Additional Chief Metropolitan Magistrate has asked the police to register a first information report against the accused involved in animal abuse and cruelty, if a complaint made to it was found valid, and submit a report before it. The order came on the complaint filed by Gauri Maulekhi, trustee of the People for Animals.Ms. Maulekhi said nearly 103 elephants at the Amber Fort were being ill-treated and forced to carry load more than the prescribed limits and were suffering from several health problems. They are housed in “Haathi Gaon”, a concrete housing structure situated four km away. The way the elephants were being treated amounted to an offence under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960, according to the complaint.Previous enquiriesThe Animal Welfare Board of India has conducted multiple investigations in the past, disclosing the conditions under which these elephants are tortured. They suffer from the blows of ‘ankush’ or bullhook, which is prohibited, and from beating, kicking and insufficient diet and inadequate medical care.Ms. Maulekhi expressed hope that the court order would help stop the torture to which the elephants were being subjected for long. “Most of the 103 elephants have open wounds, scars, are chained when not working and display stereotypical behaviour caused by lack of natural mental stimulation,” she said.The foreign tourists who frequent the elephant rides at the fort are often unaware of the cruelty behind them. None of the elephants qualifies all the criteria set for registration with the AWBI under the Performing Animals (Registration) Rules, 2001. read more

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Fever

first_imgDefinitionFever is the temporary increase in the bodys temperature in response to some disease or illness.A child has a fever when the temperature is at or above one of these levels:100.4 F (38 C) measured in the bottom (rectally)99.5 F(37.5 C) measured in the mouth (orally)99 F (37.2 C) measured under the arm (axillary)An adult probably has a fever when the temperature is above 99 – 99.5 F (37.2 – 37.5 C), depending on the time of day.See also:Heat emergenciesTemperature measurementAlternative NamesElevated temperature; Hyperthermia; PyrexiaConsiderationsNormal body temperature may change during any given day. It is usually highest in the evening. Other factors that may affect body temperature are:In the second part of a womans menstrual cycle, her temperature may go up by 1 degree or more.Physical activity, strong emotion, eating, heavy clothing, medications, high room temperature, and high humidity can all increase your body temperature.Fever is an important part of the bodys defense against infection. Most bacteria and viruses that cause infections in people thrive best at 98.6 F. Many infants and children develop high fevers with minor viral illnesses. Although a fever signals that a battle might be going on in the body, the fever is fighting for the person, not against.Brain damage from a fever generally will not occur unless the fever is over 107.6 F (42 C). Untreated fevers caused by infection will seldom go over 105 F unless the child is overdressed or trapped in a hot place.Febrile seizures do occur in some children. However, most febrile seizures are over quickly, do not mean your child has epilepsy, and do not cause any permanent harm..advertisementUnexplained fevers that continue for days or weeks are called fevers of undetermined origin (FUO).CausesAlmost any infection can cause a fever. Some common infections are:Infections such as pneumonia, bone infections (osteomyelitis), appendicitis, tuberculosis, skin infections or cellulitis, and meningitisRespiratory infections such as colds or flu -like illnesses, sore throats, ear infections, sinus infections, infectious mononucleosis, and bronchitisUrinary tract infectionsViral gastroenteritis and bacterial gastroenteritisChildren may have a low-grade fever for 1 or 2 days after some immunizations.Teething may cause a slight increase in a childs temperature, but not higher than 100 F.Autoimmune or inflammatory disorders may also cause fevers. Some examples are:Arthritis or connective tissue illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosusUlcerative colitis and Crohns diseaseVasculitis or periarteritis nodosaThe first symptom of a cancer may be a fever. This is especially true of Hodgkins disease, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and leukemia.Other possible causes of fever include:Blood clots or thrombophlebitisMedications, such as some antibiotics, antihistamines, and seizure medicinesHome CareA simple cold or other viral infection can sometimes cause a high fever (102 – 104 F, or 38.9 – 40 C). This does not usually mean you or your child have a serious problem. Some serious infections may cause no fever or even a very low body temperature, especially in infants.If the fever is mild and you have no other problems, you do not need treatment. Drink fluids and rest.The illness is probably not serious if your child:Is still interested in playingIs eating and drinking wellIs alert and smiling at youHas a normal skin colorLooks well when their temperature comes downTake steps to lower a fever if you or your child is uncomfortable, vomiting, dried out (dehydrated), or not sleeping well. Remember, the goal is to lower, not eliminate, the fever.When trying to lower a fever:Do NOT bundle up someone who has the chills.Remove excess clothing or blankets. The room should be comfortable, not too hot or cool. Try one layer of lightweight clothing, and one lightweight blanket for sleep. If the room is hot or stuffy, a fan may help.A lukewarm bath or sponge bath may help cool someone with a fever. This is especially effective after medication is given — otherwise the temperature might bounce right back up.Do NOT use cold baths, ice, or alcohol rubs. These cool the skin, but often make the situation worse by causing shivering, which raises the core body temperature.Here are some guidelines for taking medicine to lower a fever:Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) help reduce fever in children and adults. Sometimes doctors advise you to use both types of medicine.Take acetaminophen every 4 – 6 hours. It works by turning down the brains thermostat.Take ibuprofen every 6 – 8 hours. DO NOT use ibuprofen in children younger than 6 months old.Aspirin is very effective for treating fever in adults. DO NOT give aspirin to a child unless your childs doctor tells you to.Know how much you or your child weighs, and then always check the instructions on the package.In children under age 3 months, call your doctor first before giving medicines.Eating and drinking with a fever:advertisementEveryone, especially children, should drink plenty of fluids. Water, popsicles, soup, and gelatin are all good choices.Do not give too much fruit or apple juice and avoid sports drinks in younger children.Although eating foods with a fever is fine, do not force foods.When to Contact a Medical ProfessionalCall a doctor right away if your child:Is younger than 3 months old and has a rectal temperature of 100.4 F (38 C) or higherIs 3 -12 months old and has a fever of 102.2 F (39 C) or higherIs under age 2 and has a fever that lasts longer than 24 – 48 hoursIs older and has a fever for longer than 48 – 72 hoursHas a fever over 105 F (40.5 C), unless it comes down readily with treatment and the person is comfortableHas other symptoms that suggest an illness may need to be treated, such as a sore throat, earache, or coughHas been having fevers come and go for up to a week or more, even if they are not very highHas a serious medical illness, such as a heart problem, sickle cell anemia, diabetes, or cystic fibrosisRecently had an immunizationHas a new rash or bruises appearHas pain with urinationHas trouble with the immune system (chronic steroid therapy, after a bone marrow or organ transplant, spleen was removed, is HIV-positive, or is being treated for cancer)Has recently traveled to a third world countryCall 911 if you or your child has a fever and:Is crying and cannot be calmed down (children)Cannot be awakened easily or at allSeems confusedCannot walkHas difficulty breathing, even after their nose is clearedHas blue lips, tongue, or nailsHas a very bad headacheHas a stiff neckRefuses to move an arm or leg (children)Has a seizureCall your doctor right away if you are an adult and you:Have a fever over 105 F (40.5 C), unless it comes down readily with treatment and you are comfortableHave a fever that stays at or keeps rising above 103 FHave a fever for longer than 48 – 72 hoursHave had fevers come and go for up to a week or more, even if they are not very highHave a serious medical illness, such as a heart problem, sickle cell anemia, diabetes, cystic fibrosis, COPD, or other chronic lung problemsHave a new rash or bruises appearHave pain with urinationHave trouble with your immune system (chronic steroid therapy, after a bone marrow or organ transplant, had spleen removed, HIV-positive, were being treated for cancer)Have recently traveled to a third world countryWhat to Expect at Your Office VisitYour doctor will perform a physical examination, which may include a detailed examination of the skin, eyes, ears, nose, throat, neck, chest, and abdomen to look for the cause of the fever.Treatment depends on the duration and cause of the fever, as well as your other symptoms.advertisementThe following tests may be performed:Blood studies, such as a CBC or blood differentialUrinalysisX-ray of the chestReferencesMick NW. Pediatric fever. In: Marx JA, ed. Rosens Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2009:chap 165.Leggett J. Approach to fever or suspected infection in the normal host. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldmans Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 288.Review Date:2/1/2012Reviewed By:Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.last_img read more

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