Researchers restore light sensitivity to retina using polymerbased optoelectronic interface

first_img Citation: Researchers restore light sensitivity to retina using polymer-based optoelectronic interface (2013, March 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-03-sensitivity-retina-polymer-based-optoelectronic-interface.html The photoreceptor layer is replaced in the degenerate retina by the organic polymer. Credit: doi:10.1038/nphoton.2013.34 Explore further Journal information: Nature Photonics Zebrafish may hold the answer to repairing damaged retinas and returning eyesight to people This new research by the group follows up on research the team conducted two years ago, where they found that they could grow neurons on top of photovoltaic polymers. In this new effort, they placed the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) on a small sheet of glass then followed that up by placing a damaged retina extracted from a rat on top of it. Using the same techniques they’d discovered in their earlier work, they coaxed the cells into incorporating themselves with the polymer. Once that occurred, they shined a light on the result and found that neural activity occurred that was very similar to what happens with retinas that are not damaged.The polymer used in the experiment is one of a class that is able to convert light into electricity without the need for any other power source. Such materials, the researchers believe, make them ideal candidates for use as a possible means of correcting vision problems in people with retina damage due to diseases such as macular degeneration or retinitis pigmentosa. In these cases, the rods and cones—photoreceptor cells—that make up the retina are damaged or destroyed slowly robbing their victim of sight. The idea with the new research is to see if photovoltaic polymers can be used to replace the damaged nerves, and thus restore vision.In their experiments the researchers found the retina/polymer combination responded to what they describe as average daylight brightness levels indicting it might prove useful as a means of treating certain types of blindness. They caution however that they also observed that the combined material did not respond to the full range of brightness levels as seen by a healthy eye, though they suggest they believe more research will produce better results. The team next plans to implant their polymer optoelectronic interface into blind rats to see if it can restore vision and if so, how well.center_img (Phys.org) —A team of researchers in Italy has successfully demonstrated a means for restoring light sensitivity to a damaged rat retina by incorporating an inorganic polymer with nerve cells. In their paper published in the journal Nature Photonics, the team describes how they placed a damaged rat retina atop a glass substrate covered with a light sensitive polymer and then found that shining a light on the mix resulted in neural activity similar to that which occurs with a healthy retina. © 2013 Phys.org More information: A polymer optoelectronic interface restores light sensitivity in blind rat retinas, Nature Photonics (2013) doi:10.1038/nphoton.2013.34AbstractInterfacing organic electronics with biological substrates offers new possibilities for biotechnology by taking advantage of the beneficial properties exhibited by organic conducting polymers. These polymers have been used for cellular interfaces in several applications, including cellular scaffolds, neural probes, biosensors and actuators for drug release. Recently, an organic photovoltaic blend has been used for neuronal stimulation via a photo-excitation process. Here, we document the use of a single-component organic film of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) to trigger neuronal firing upon illumination. Moreover, we demonstrate that this bio–organic interface restores light sensitivity in explants of rat retinas with light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. These findings suggest that all-organic devices may play an important future role in subretinal prosthetic implants. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Going beyond just pottery

first_imgWhen a Professor decides to hang up her boots and probe hidden embers of firing and glazes and clay constructions – it becomes more than a mere pilgrim’s journey. Manjari Sharma’s affair with stoneware began more than 15 years ago when exploring clay meant going beyond pots and bowls and platters – exploring clay meant an embodiment of the gestural spontaneity and visual momentum of abstraction as well as gauging degrees of expressionism along with the dramatic Shakespearean – like acceptance of imperfections that characterizes the creation of sculptural pottery in all its manifestations. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfManjari works with a personal structural vocabulary which she pours overthrown shapes including cylinders, bowls, plates, clay slabs, and whatever forms her hand or mallet could pierce, press, pinch or paddle. Pottery is not only bowls and pots and platters, pottery is a journey that enfolds and explores and experiments with forms and glazes and textures and expression. Manjari moves a step ahead with human expressions that are full of drama and deep intensity. Her lamps with quirky lips are delightful, her bowls with human hands are truly sculptural, her jars with lids that have fingers are a statement in the power of human emotions. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsive”A very noticeable outcome of my journey within was a loss of fear and hence the ability to play more. In the celebration of the “human experience”, I found greater acceptability of the good with the bad or the pretty with the ugly. I realized that everything is contextual. There are no absolute truths. In fact, I feel that perfection and beauty are fairly violent concepts they are so non-inclusive,” says sculptor Manjari Sharma. Curator Uma Nair who has followed her works for 20 years says,”Manjari doesn’t merely throw pots, she builds and fashions them. Indeed, she uses a potter’s wheel on which to spin the initial clay forms; but after that first rudimentary step the traditional method of wheel-thrown pottery is dramatically overturned.” The show which opened on April 16, will run till April 23 at Lalit Kala Akademi, Rabindra Bhavan.last_img read more

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BJP Modi speaking about religion which is not Hinduism

first_imgIslampur: Trinamool Congress supremo Mamata Banerjee said Hindusthan will be set up through the Lok Sabha election and not Modisthan or BJPsthan. She was addressing a rally here on Tuesday afternoon.Banerjee said Modi and BJP are talking about a religion which is not Hinduism. “Hinduism talks about tolerance and acceptance and they are talking about hatred. In the name of preservation of cows, many people have been lynched. They are spreading hatred everywhere. This Hindusthan is Modisthan and BJPsthan. We do not want this. We want a Hindusthan where people will live peacefully and there will be communal harmony and peace,” she said, adding: “BJP is inciting one religion against the other and in the name of religion, they have unleashed a reign of terror. We want to come out of this,” she maintained. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataReferring to Modi and BJP national president Amit Shah as Duryodhan and Dushshashan, she said: “The duo has come to destroy the social fabric in our country. Never in the past have I seen so much hatred and disrespect for others. This is not Indian tradition. Indians are respected for their tolerant views.” Banerjee said the SC, ST, minorities and dalits will vote against Modi. “The SCs, STs and Dalits have been tortured in different areas. In Jharkhand, they have been thrown out from their land. In Uttar Pradesh and Assam, Muslims have been tortured by BJP workers and the state governments do not take any action against them,” she said. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in state”They should first see the law and order situation in their own states before commenting on the situation in Bengal. They come to Bengal to disturb the areas. They incite the people living in the hills against those living in the plains to win elections,” Banerjee added. The Trinamool supremo said demonetisation has affected poor people and farmers badly. “Over two crore people have lost their jobs and 12,000 farmers have committed suicide after failing to pay loans. People have stood in long queues to withdraw their own money from the banks. Modi had said note ban will stop circulation of money among terrorists, but in reality terrorist attacks have been the highest during Modi’s time,” she said. Banerjee questioned why no action was taken to save the lives of the jawans in Pulwama despite prior information, adding: “It’s a matter of shame for BJP that its leaders are talking about the achievements of the Army in its election speeches.” “Just as Ma Durga had killed Asura, the women of the country will vote against BJP to oust Modi and set up a secular pro-development government,” she said.last_img read more

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Heres How to Stop Third Parties From Reading Your Gmail

first_imgSeptember 24, 2018 Children pass notes, and high school students send text messages. But twenty-somethings, eighty-somethings and everyone in between tend to gravitate to email.As we age, our primary method of communication may change, but our expectations of privacy remain relatively constant. But when it comes to email, a letter from Google to lawmakers revealed that those expectations may be moot.The letter, which was first reported by The Wall Street Journal, was sent in advance of the tech giant’s scheduled appearance at a Senate Commerce Committee hearing on Sept. 26. The issue on the docket is safeguards for consumer privacy, and senior executives from Google will appear alongside those of Apple, Amazon, Twitter, AT&T and Charter Communications.The main revelation from the letter? Though Google itself stopped mining users’ emails for ad targeting purposes in 2017, it continues to allow third-party app developers to do so. What’s more, as long as Google okays the privacy policy beforehand, app developers are free to share that data with any number of partners and third parties.A whole host of apps offer useful services that may tempt Gmail users to sign up — tracking purchases to alert you to potential retroactive discounts, helping to manage a flooded inbox, planning flights according to best purchase times. But data such as what you’re buying, where you plan to travel and when you tend to check your email is valuable to advertisers who aim to target you more accurately, and app developers are often well-compensated for sharing it with partners.Perhaps the most unsettling practice that’s come to light here: It’s not just algorithms that can scan your inbox. At some app companies, employees themselves have been known to read users’ emails to help improve the software.There is a caveat: Google has to give privacy policies the green light beforehand, which usually involves making sure the document is “easily accessible to users to review before deciding whether to grant access,” wrote Susan Molinari, a vice president at Google, in the letter. Be that as it may, that’s likely not enough for the vast majority of Americans: A 2015 Pew Research Center survey found that 74 percent said it’s “very important” to them to be in control of who has access to their information. And since Gmail claims the lion’s share of today’s email market, it’s important to take a close look at exactly what Google is doing to protect users’ personal data.Ahead of the Senate hearing on Sept. 26, here’s a step-by-step guide for how to see exactly which companies can access your email — or share it with third parties.1. Click on your Gmail account photo on the upper right-hand corner of your email inbox.2. Click the blue button labeled “Google Account.”3. Inside the “Sign-in & Security” box on the left, choose “Apps with account access.”4. You should see a list of “Apps with access to your account” — click “Manage Apps” for more information.5. Click on each of the apps in the list to see what they have permission to view and do (for example: “Read, send, delete and manage your email”).6. Revoke access for the apps of your choice. (Remember, if a service is free, you — and your data — are often the product.) 3 min read Register Now »center_img Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box.last_img read more

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